Austronesian: - a culture found in Madagascar and other areas throughout the world offering a unique mix of Oceania, Australia, and Polynesia cultures.

cardinal direction: - a term used to describe all four primary directions (north, south, east and west).

dam: - a wall that is built to hold back the water of a creek, stream, or river. Dams may also be used to generate hydroelectric power, to provide water supply to a town or city, to control flooding, or to create recreational areas or habitats for wildlife.

daylight saving: - a way states and countries change their clocks in spring and fall to make better use of daylight. It moves an extra hour of daylight to afternoon during March to October. This helps people who work outside. Daylight saving time also conserves energy, moving activities into the daylight so we do not need to use lights. Not all places participate in daylight saving time.

delta: - the triangular piece of land (usually sand and soil) that is located at the mouth (or inlet) of a river where it meets salt water.

earthquakes: - shaking and vibration on the surface of the earth. Earthquakes can be a result of underground movement along a fault plane or from volcanic activity.

endemic: - A species that is endemic, is not found naturally anywhere else in the world.

equator : - an imaginary line on the earth's surface that is positioned halfway between the north pole and the south pole. The equator divides the earth into the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere.

estuary: - the meeting place for fresh water (rivers) and salt water (oceans). Many cities located at estuaries have become important centers of commerce due to the convenience of the port.

hemisphere: - half of a sphere.

hybrid map: - a map that combines satellite images taken of the earth from space with lines for roads and markings and names of landmarks.

inhospitable: - a place that has a climate and conditions that make it hard for many plants and animals to live and grow.

isthmus: - a narrow strip of land that connects two larger bodies of land.

latitude: - the lines that run across (east and west) a map. Lines of latitude measure degrees via north or south. The equator is at 0 degrees latitude.

legend: - another term for a key on a map. It explains the symbols used in the map. The legend may include a map scale, origin, and other information about the map.

longitude: - lines that run up and down the map (north and south). These lines are used to measure degrees east or west from the prime meridian. The prime meridian is located at 0 degrees longitude.

map coordinates: - numbers that provide the exact location of a specified country or other area. The coordinates provide the degrees of longitude and latitude. Coordinates help people locate specific areas on a map.

map scale: - a graphic or line that shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth. For example, 1 inch may equal 500 miles. This allows users to calculate the approximate distance between two locations on a map.

natural resources: - any substance that is made by nature and used to enhance the lives of living things. Some examples of natural resources include sunlight, minerals, soil, and water.

northern hemisphere : - the half of the planet Earth that is north of the equator. The northern hemisphere contains 90% of the human population and most of the land on the Earth.

Northwest Passage: - a shortcut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through the Canadian Arctic. This passage is a direct route for ships to travel from Europe to Asia across the Arctic Ocean. The passage is becoming ice-free for the first time since satellite records began to be kept in the 1970s.

Pampas: - the fertile land in Argentina (and a few other South American countries). The Pampas of Argentina are known for their harvest of soybeans. Much of the Pampas in Buenos Aires is also used for grazing cattle. The Pampas experience heavy rainfall and flooding.

peninsula: - a piece of land that is bordered by water (on three or more sides), but is not an island. A peninsula is attached to a larger body of land but sticks out into the water.

prime meridian: - the imaginary line that runs up and down a map or globe. It is found at 0 degrees longitude. This imaginary line runs vertically through the United Kingdom, France, Spain, western Africa, and Antarctica. The prime meridian divides the world into the eastern hemisphere and western hemisphere.

provinces: - a name for a secondary level of government (secondary to the country itself). A province is similar to a state (such as Arizona or Texas).

scale: - shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth. For example, 1 inch may equal 500 miles. This allows users to calculate the approximate distance between two locations on a map.

southern hemisphere : - the half of the planet Earth that is south of the equator. The southern hemisphere contains all of Antarctica and Australia, most of South America, and part of Asia and Africa.

Suez Canal: - The Suez Canal is a manmade canal between Africa and Asia. It was opened in 1869 to allow two-way water transportation between Africa, Asia, and Europe.

suspension bridge: - a bridge that is created by using a deck supported by large cables hung from the towers. The Brooklyn Bridge is one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States (built from 1870 - 1883). It is 5,989 feet long.

territories: - similar to a state (such as Arizona or Texas). Territories are land areas under the jurisdiction of a government.

tsunamis: - an enormous ocean wave that is produced by a landslide, volcanic eruption, or a sub-marine earthquake.