Arctic Circle: - an imaginary line of latitude around the Arctic regions. It is near (but to the south) of the North Pole.

Arctic Ocean: - smallest ocean in the world. Surrounds the North Pole between North America and Eurasia.

arid: - a way of describing a climate that is dry and does not receive much rainfall

Atlantic Ocean: - the second largest ocean in the world. It separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east.

biome: - a community characterized by dominant forms of plant life or climates. Examples include deserts, grasslands, forests, woodlands, and others.

biomes: - are communities characterized by dominant forms of plant life or climates. Examples include deserts, grasslands, forests, woodlands, and others.

canal: - an artificial waterway created for travel, shipping, or other reasons. Canals often connect places, such as two bodies of water or other transportation systems like roads or railroads.

cardinal direction: - a term used to describe all four primary directions (north, south, east and west).

cartographer: - a person who makes maps

channel: - bed of a stream or river, typically the deepest part of the river or harbor. Usually a broad strait that connects two seas or other bodies of water.

coal mine: - a place where coal is removed from the earth.

coal seam: - a stratum (or wide layer) of coal that is thick enough to be mined to make a profit.

coal seams: - stratums (or wide layers) of coal that are thick enough to be mined to make a profit.

continental divide: - the "backbone" of a continent. In North America, it runs from the Northern tip of Alaska all the way south to New Mexico. It moves along the Rocky Mountains, which separate the eastward-flowing waters from the westward-flowing waters.

coordinates: - provide the exact location of a specified area on a map. The coordinates provide the degrees of longitude and latitude. Coordinates help people locate specific areas on a map.

dam: - a wall that is built to hold back the water of a creek, stream, or river. Dams may also be used to generate hydroelectric power, to provide water supply to a town or city, to control flooding, or to create recreational areas or habitats for wildlife.

daylight saving: - a way states and countries change their clocks in spring and fall to make better use of daylight. It moves an extra hour of daylight to afternoon during March to October. This helps people who work outside. Daylight saving time also conserves energy, moving activities into the daylight so we do not need to use lights. Not all places participate in daylight saving time.

democracy: - a government that is run by the people or by their elected representatives. The United States is a democracy because we elect our president and other leaders.

desert: - a sandy and dry landform and biome. Deserts typically have extreme temperatures: either hot or cold.

deserts: - are sandy and dry landforms and biomes. Deserts typically have extreme temperatures: either hot or cold.

district: - a geographical or political division (similar to a state).

dormant: - inactive, but not extinct (used to describe volcanoes)

East Coast: - the coast that borders the Atlantic Ocean.

equator : - an imaginary line on the earth's surface that is positioned halfway between the north pole and the south pole. The equator divides the earth into the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere.

forests: - an area with a lot of trees, plants, and brush

fossil fuel: - a non-renewable energy source that was formed a LONG time ago (300 million years) from the remains of plants and animals. There are three main forms of fossil fuels: oil, natural gas, and coal.

fossil fuels: - non-renewable energy sources that were formed a LONG time ago (300 million years) from the remains of plants and animals. There are three main forms of fossil fuels: oil, natural gas, and coal.

freshwater port: - a place on a "freshwater" waterway with facilities for loading and unloading ships. Freshwater refers to any water that does not contain salt (remember, oceans contain salt).

geology: - the study of the history of the planet Earth, its structure, and formation. Geologists study rocks and other materials that make up the planet Earth, both on the inside and on its surface.

Grand Canyon: - a canyon located in the state of Arizona. It is a steep-sided gorge carved by the Colorado River. Most of the Grand Canyon is located in the Grand Canyon National Park, one of the first national parks in the United States.

grasslands: - land with a lot of grass, such as a prairie or meadow

green: - environmentally aware, interested in preserving and protecting the environment

hydroelectric power: - power (electricity) generated through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

island: - land that is surrounded on all sides by water.

Kilauea: - an active volcano located in Hawaii.

landform: - any natural formation of rock and dirt found on the Earth. Examples of landforms include mountains, deserts, plains, and many others.

latitude: - the lines that run across (east and west) a map. Lines of latitude measure degrees via north or south. The equator is at 0 degrees latitude.

longitude: - lines that run up and down the map (north and south). These lines are used to measure degrees east or west from the prime meridian. The prime meridian is located at 0 degrees longitude.

map scale: - a graphic or line that shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth. For example, 1 inch may equal 500 miles. This allows users to calculate the approximate distance between two locations on a map.

Marine west coast: - the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, and in southeastern Australia. These areas have somewhat cool summers and comparatively cool winters.

marshlands: - a type of wetland that has frequent or continuous floods. Marshlands typically have shallow water and include grasses and many other plants.

moderate: - a climate that doesn't have extremely cold winters or hot summers.

naturally flowing: - flows without the assistance of anything. Naturally flowing rivers typically flow towards another river, sea, or ocean.

Navaho Nation: - the name given to the Native American people who inhabit large reservation lands in three US states: Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona. As a whole, the Navaho Nation is the most populous contemporary Native American groups in the United States. They are noted as skilled potters, weavers, and silversmiths.

Pacific Ocean: - the largest ocean in the world.

peninsula: - a piece of land that is bordered by water (on three or more sides), but is not an island. A peninsula is attached to a larger body of land but sticks out into the water.

permafrost: - ground that is permanently frozen.

polar climate: - a climate which is too cold and dry to support the growth of trees.

political map: - map that shows the governmental boundaries between states, provinces, countries, and other man-made divisions. Political maps often include locations of major cities (another man-made government), and typically large bodies of water.

port: - a place on a waterway with facilities for loading and unloading ships (cargo, passengers, etc.).

portage: - a way for boats and/or ships to carry supplies between two waterways.

renewable resource: - any natural resource that can be replenished naturally within a relatively short time. Examples include wood or solar energy.

renewable resources: - any natural resource that can be replenished naturally within a relatively short time. Examples include wood or solar energy.

ring of fire: - a circle that encompasses the Pacific Ocean. In that circle, many volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur. There are over 450 volcanoes in the ring of fire. Sometimes even tsunamis occur in the ring of fire.

scale: - shows the relationship between the distance on a map and the corresponding distance on the earth. For example, 1 inch may equal 500 miles. This allows users to calculate the approximate distance between two locations on a map.

temperate: - a climate that provides warm summers and mild winters. The temperatures do not typically get extremely hot or cold.

time zone: - how the time of day is determined throughout the world. There are 24 regions on the globe (loosely divided by longitude).

tributary: - a small river or stream that flows into a larger river or other body of water.

tropical: - a climate with high temperatures and a decent amount of rainfall. Tropical climates are usually located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, closer to the equator than cooler, temperate climates.

tundra: - a treeless area with very little vegetation and frozen ground beneath the surface.

valley: - lowland between mountains or hills

vegetation: - all of the plant life in a region

watershed: - the area of land that catches snow and rain and then drains into a stream, creek, marsh, lake, or other waterway.

west coast: - the coast that borders the Pacific Ocean.

woodlands: - large land area covered by trees and shrubs