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Chief Joseph (1835)close

Born in the Wallowa Valley, Joseph was a member of the Nez Perce tribe. Known primarily as a peaceful leader, he was forced into a war in 1877 over issues of white settlement. After trying to lead his people on a 1,500 mile trek to Canada, he was forced to surrender when his people were left starving and near frozen to death. He was first relocated to Oklahoma, but then returned to his homeland and encouraged Indians to get an education and to abstain from drinking and gambling.

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